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# gWX^ Transistor

1947N1223gWX^iij 1947 on December 23 of the first transistor was invented (reproduction)
lXgWX^ Various transistor

gWX^ ( transistor ) AXCb`fqAdqHwfqB Transistors (transistor) the amplification, or switch to operate a semiconductor device, and modern electronics is the main element. uRMi transfer of a signal through a varistertransit resistor jvB "Change the resistance of the signal through a converter (transfer of a signal through a varister or transit resistor)" is the term coined.

u vi ^uvjB Land as a "stone" a (vacuum-tube "ball" and act in concert to be called). gWX^WIAgpgWX^A6WIi6gWX^gWIjB For example, transistor and the transistor is used to count the number of the six stones radio (with six transistor radio) you have to say.

fW^HgWX^dqIXCb`gA E}CNvZbTE_HpB Digital circuits in the transistors that are used as electronic switches, semiconductor memory microprocessors and other logic circuits are used. A ICyAPgWX^fW^H_fqpB However, IC due to the spread of a single transistor logic device in the digital circuitry can be used as has almost disappeared. A AiOHAgWX^{IgB Meanwhile, the analog circuitry in the basic transistor amplifier is used as.

gWX^A Q}jEVRpIB Transistors, germanium or silicon crystals can be produced using general. A KE - qf ( GaAs )gWX^AgpfoCXLpiq`[i[jB In addition, gallium - arsenide (GaAs) materials and other compounds are known as the compound semiconductor transistors, and especially for ultra-high-frequency devices are widely used as the (satellite tuner, etc.).

## [ W ] j History

gWX^A 1948N 630AT&TxEH^[Eube A WEo[fB[ A EBAEVbN[O[viA 1956Nm[xwjB Transistors, 1948 to June 30, AT & T Bell Laboratories BURATTEN Walter, John Bardeen, William Shockley invent them by a group that has been reported (by this achievement, the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics Winner).

ON1947NA{NHKZpcGjgWX^HA GHQ{A\oB In 1947 the previous year in Japan, NHK Institute of Technology Hideo Utita already equivalent to transistor amplifier circuit has been the invention of the report, GHQ of censorship, was revoked by its history and theory have Said. A{xVRQ}jEAMi99.999999999%((CuiC))xVRgjB However, in Japan at the time of high purity silicon and germanium crystals could not obtain more than a theory of credibility is low (99.999999999% ((called Nine-Eleven)) or a very high-purity silicon Now it is used). wiNHKXyV dq{`2 ugWX^av AAJgWX^JZpAxB For background NHK Special e-powerhouse Japan's autobiography, the second "Birth of Transistor", the transistor was developed in the United States and many engineers have heard a makeup tried, but even in the hands of high-purity semiconductor Did not enter and are broadcast. AgWX^G^gWX^Ax\dqIB The transistor is the first contact-type transistor, the surface of the semiconductor crystal of high purity in the electronic nature of the research was discovered in the process. {1954NMHi\j[ jYA1955NgWX^WIiBMHin Japan around 1954 (now Sony) is a locally made, the next transistor in 1955 from the commercialization of the company is said to be.

1960NAYRXgA^erggAe^gWX^WIgWX^er\B Entering the 1960s, the rising cost of production falling yields, and only in a vacuum tube television-likeENAKATTA can be used at high frequencies because of their small transistor radios and television will be announced transistors. dUHFgp\1970NAperWIfq^pB And a higher power UHF will be able to use in 1970, before the home from television and radio vacuum tube as a device to amplify disappear.

gWX^WxAICLSIWHiB The transistors in high-density, IC and LSI, such as integrated circuits and evolution.

## [ W ] The principle of operation

NPN^gWX^} Schematic diagram of NPN transistor

NPNi[qG~b^ Ax[XARN^joC|[gWX^ iqjB The NPN junction (in order of the terminal emitter, base, the collector) bipolar transistor (see below) took an example to explain.

1. OAG~b^RN^N^ (N: negative) dqAx[XP^ (P: positive) dqsi EjB As a prerequisite, the emitter and collector N-type semiconductor (N: negative) because electrons in excess, based on a P-type semiconductor (P: positive) because of a shortage of electronic (hole with). PLAdB In other words each of the stand-alone carrier as the current flows. x[XixjB The width of the base are very thin (about a few m). iAG~b^x[XAAG~b^sZxx[XRN^Bj (In fact, the base-emitter junction and a small area, and the base-emitter and collector of the impurity levels are higher than.)
2. G~b^ - RN^AG~b^ (-) dB The emitter - between the collector and emitter side (-) on the voltage. dB If the current did not flow.
1. G~b^dqRN^ (+) x[XAEB The electronic side of the collector-emitter (+) is attracted toREMI based there and join in the hole. x[XEASdqx[XLAB Based on only a few holes, all of them in e-linkage with the base does not exist in the carrier. dq~iG~b^ - RN^Rw`jB As a result of the move to stop e (emitter - between the collector depletion layer is formed).
2. ARN^dq (+) ARN^VdqARN^dqS (+) E_dq~B In addition, the electrons in the collector (+) is attracted to move into pole, to the collector is not a new influx of electrons, so that all the e-collector (+) pole at the hole and electron bound Move to stop.
3. XG~b^ - x[XAG~b^ (-)i PNjdB In addition emitter here - between the base and emitter side (-) (PN junction forward to) put a voltage. gWX^SdB When an electrical current across the transistor.
1. x[XVEAG~b^dqx[XB Based on a new influx to the hole, the electronic emitter exists to move opposite to the base.
2. dqx[XEAx[XwAdqRN^x[XB Some of the electronic transfer of the base combined with a hole in the base layer is very thin, most were attracted to the electron collector to pass through the base.
3. AdgWX^SAG~b^ - RN^dG~b^ - x[Xd]i jB Consequently, the current flow across the transistor, the emitter - the current between the emitter and collector - based on the current changes will be in accordance with (amplifying). eux[XdyvuG~b^odqvuRN^ vOB Each of parts, "based on the current basis", "the release of an e-emitter", "will receive a collector," the name of the street to work.

1960NpPNP^gWX^AdidjtiG~b^i+jARN^Ex[Xi-jjAdqEAlsB In the early 1960s until the versatility of the PNP-type transistors in the case of a power polarity (current orientation) and reverse (the emitter (+), the collector-base (-)), and the electron-holeREERE, similar to worked.

### [ W ] p amplification effect

• G~b^ - x[XdAG~b^ - RN^{dB Emitter - based on a small electric current between a emitter - many times that between the collector current can flow.
• G~b^ - x[XdAG~b^ - RN^dB Emitter - based on the current changes little between the emitter - a major change in current between the collector and come.
• G~b^ - x[XdMAG~b^ - RN^doMApB Emitter - based on the current input signal and the emitter - an electric current between the collector and the output signal by amplifying effect is obtained.
• RN^d (I C ) x[Xd (I B ) {ld h FE\B Collector current (I C) based on current (I B) can be many times the value of the DC current gain h FE to represent the call. l\SyB This value is the number ranging from 10 to several hundred. $h_ (FE) = \ frac (I_C) (I_B)$ B .

### [ W ] XCb`Op switching action

• lAG~b^ - x[Xdix[XdjG~b^ - RN^diRN^djdgpB When the same amplification emitter - based on the current (based on current) by the emitter - larger than the current collector (collector current) can control the use scheme.
• x[X^MdAJjJ[XCb`pB Based on a little larger than the current control signal, so instead of mechanical switches and relays can be used.
• dON / OFFA`IpARN^dx[XddOagB Rather than the size of current ON / OFF control only because of the constant demands of the general linear amplification Unlike the case of action, and the collector current and base current ratio than the DC current gain Will be used to be small and saturated region.

## [ W ] gWX^ the type of transistor

PNP^ENPN^gWX^HL PNP-NPN transistor circuit No.
MpoC|[gWX^\i2SC1815 Is a typical small-signal bipolar transistor 2SC1815
oC|[gWX^ (Bipolar transistor) Bipolar transistor (Bipolar transistor)
P^N^AG~b^Ex[XERN^[qB P-and N-type semiconductor junction, which called the emitter and collector pin-based. AugWX^vA^CvwB In general, however, "Transistor", it refers to this type. P^[N^NPN^AN^[P^PNP^Ax[X - G~b^dARN^ - G~b^diE}HLQjB P-type across the ends of the NPN-N-type, N-type across the ends of the PNP-P has a base - by currents flowing between the emitter and collector - to control the current between the emitter (right picture Circuit symbol). NPN^PNP^gi:2SC1815E2SA1015jRv^B NPN and PNP-type characteristics equal to a pair of type (for example: 2SC1815 2SA1015) to call complementary. Q}jEg1960NPNP^iA ^HtvXdnjAVRg1970N~A^Hl}CiXdnNPN^B Germanium material was used in the early 1960s was almost the PNP-type (for vacuum-tube circuit plus the potential to reverse the grounding was), came to be used for silicon 1970 Since age, as well as negative vacuum tube circuit ground potential to become NPN type.
dEgWX^ (FET, Field effect transistor) j|[gWX^ (Unipolar transistor) Field-effect transistor (FET, Field effect transistor) or YUNIPORATORANJISUTA (Unipolar transistor)
Q[gdi`ldEjgWX^B The gate voltage (the channel electric field) is controlled by a system of the transistor. Q[gd_MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) FETB Semiconductor gate electrode through the insulating layer of oxide is a particularly MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) FET.
Q[goC|[gWX^ (IGBT, Insulated gate bipolar transistor) Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT, Insulated gate bipolar transistor)
Q[gdEgWX^goC|[gWX^B Field-effect transistor gate to the Ministry of the bipolar transistor is built. ddAdXCb`Oid[^jgpB Handle a large power voltage-controlled, high-power switching (for example, motor control of the train, etc.) are used to.
g`MOS\AVXgoC|[FET (GTBT, Grounded-Trench-MOS Assisted Bipolar-mode Field Effect Transistor) MOS trench work bipolar structure assists FET (GTBT, Grounded-Trench-MOS Assisted Bipolar-mode Field Effect Transistor)
rgCd`lRALARwy`xAfFETAFEToC|[gWX^gWX^B Built-in channel-depletion potential and the carrier injection and resolved by the depletion layer of conductivity modulation, such as blocking state FET to work, despite the continuity FET and bipolar transistor in a state of the hybrid operation will be like Transistor.
jWNVgWX^ (UJT, Uni-junction transistor) YUNIJANKUSHONTORANJISUTA (UJT, Uni-junction transistor)
2x[X[qN^G~b^[qP^A TCX^gKfqJB The two semiconductor-based N-terminal and a terminal with emitter P-type semiconductor and at the junction of the thyristor has been developed as a triggering device. opXB A high power pulse stability will be achieved. 3dgWX^OA{IgWX^A1\iPjAj[NfqB For three electrode Transistors with the name, but essentially nothing to do with the transistor and junction have only one structure (single-junction), is a unique semiconductor devices.
vO}uUJT (PUT, Programmable Uni-junction transistor) Programmable UJT (PUT, Programmable Uni-junction transistor)
UJTB Variable operation and characteristics of UJT. UJTlATCX^gKfqJB UJT as well as thyristor as a trigger device has been developed. {gWX^A4TCX^B In essence instead of transistors, which itself has four joint thyristor.
tHggWX^ Phototransistor
MdgWX^BMnumber of transistors that control the current. pbP[WAKXpAIx[X[q[qfq`B Package includes the transmission of light plastic or glass used to, in general, not the base of the pin and two-terminal device is the shape. ZTpB Mainly light sensor is used as a. pbP[Wfqg~tHgJvAdnHM`BpB During the same package in conjunction with light-emitting device sealed optocouplers, a different circuit of the power system while maintaining isolation between the signal used to transmit.
dU^gWX^ (SIT, Static induction transistor) Electrostatic induction-type transistor (SIT, Static induction transistor)
dUpA`lR`lZA`ldOaB Electrostatic effect by using the channel to the extreme resistance to reduce the short channel, the channel as the current is not saturated. EAMg`\B High-speed operation with low losses, the signal can be amplified waveform of the faithful.
_[ggWX^ DARINTONTORANJISUTA
oC|[gWX^B A kind of bipolar. dgWX^ogWX^@_[gA1pbP[WsAOgWX^l_[ggWX^B Current amplification in order to increase the ratio of the output transistor of a different type of transistor and Darlington connection with the law, but in one package this connection, and the general appearance of things like transistors and DARINTONTORANJISUTA Is called.
p[oC|[gWX^ (Power bipolar transistor) Power bipolar transistor (Power bipolar transistor)
d@AdikWI[_jJoC|[gWX^B Such as motor control, especially a big power (kW order) has been developed to handle the bipolar transistor. oC|[gWX^d^ix[X[qdRN^ - G~b^djAdHKB The current-controlled bipolar transistor (based on current terminal in a small shed in the collector - a large current between the emitter to control), so big deal if the current drive circuit is also on a large scale. XCb`OprA2000NAd^p[MOSFETQ[goC|[gWX^ (IGBT) uB In particular, switching applications, in the 2000s, driven characteristics of the well-voltage power MOSFET and insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) are to be replaced.

## [ W ] ^ Ref.

JEITAic@ldqZpY jKiED-4001ufoCX`vA^KiJEITAo^B JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) standards ED-4001 "in the form of individual semiconductor devices", based on the standard model name is registered to JEITA. {fqi3dj^AJIS[tB Semiconductors in Japan (where the electrodes have three) and model of the old JIS with the following rules were.

• 2SAxxx PNP^oC|[gWX^ gp 2SAxxx PNP-type bipolar transistor for high frequency
• 2SBxxx PNP^oC|[gWX^ gp For low-frequency 2SBxxx PNP-type bipolar transistor
• 2SCxxx NPN^oC|[gWX^ gp 2SCxxx NPN-bipolar transistor for high frequency
• 2SDxxx NPN^oC|[gWX^ gp For low-frequency type 2SDxxx NPN bipolar transistor
• 2SFxxx TCX^ 2SFxxx thyristor
• 2SHxxx jWNVgWX^ YUNIJANKUSHONTORANJISUTA 2SHxxx
• 2SJxxx Pch dE^gWX^ 2SJxxx Pch field-effect transistor
• 2SKxxx Nch dE^gWX^ 2SKxxx Nch field-effect transistor

ixxx11nj (Xxx from the start number 11)

oC|[gWX^dE^gWX^A[B Bipolar transistor and the majority of field-effect transistor, according to this rule is named. YJISKip~AJIS^EIAJiJEITAOggD{dq@BHj^B The JIS standards have already been abolished, but even today JIS as a model name or the name EIAJ (JEITA predecessor organization of the Electronic Industries Association of Japan abbreviated) and the model name is called. AgpgpA[J[CB Here, the high-frequency and low frequency for the criteria for distinguishing not specifically stipulates the manufacturer is voluntary. ^A,BcctB After a number of improvements to the type A, B ... ... with the show. A^d (h FE ) MIsA^tB Also, in the same model number DC current gain (h FE) and sorting and reliability, and model number to identify those at the bottom of the characters that have been given. 2SC1815iAJ[R[hFLgB For example, Toshiba's product 2SC1815 cases, the color of color code number using the abbreviation shown in the following.

• 2SC1815-O: h FE = 70`140 uIWv 2SC1815-O: h FE = 70 ~ 140 known as "orange"
• 2SC1815-Y: h FE = 120`240 uCG[v 2SC1815-Y: h FE = 120 ~ 240 known as "yellow"
• 2SC1815-GR: h FE = 200`400 uO[v 2SC1815-GR: h FE = 200 ~ 400 known as "green"
• 2SC1815-BL: h FE = 350`700 uu[v 2SC1815-BL: h FE = 350 ~ 700 known as "blue"

iL\LAj (The notation symbols, Toshiba's own)

• TTL - oC|[gWX^p_H\B TTL - bipolar logic circuit using the system's configuration. yWbNICAH\WbNIC^PB The first popular logic IC, and other logic circuitry of the IC, but that upholds the model number.
• CMOS - P^AN^MOSFETIp_H\B CMOS - P-, N-type MOSFET used in a complementary system of logic circuit configuration. WxdAWbNICALSILpB The highly integrated low power consumption, so the logic IC, LSI is a widely used.
• |p F gWX^gpJ[er PONPA: Hitachi has launched the transistors used in the color TV

## [ W ] Ql References

• wVgWX^Ki\ eNxxiCQoj - 1966Nij1988Ni22jB The latest version of each fiscal year, transistors Specifications (CQ's publisher) - 1966 (first edition) until 1988 (22). gWX^iQ}jEjKifB Early transistors (germanium) standards that are posted. AOB However, from the initial revision is excluded objects. 1989NB The revised version from 1989. 2003NoB Was published until 2003.
• wVgWX^\ eNxxiCQoj - 1968Nij2003Ni35jB Each year, the latest version of the table, with transistor (CQ's publisher) - 1968 (first edition) and 2003 (35).
• wVgWX^Ki\&\ eNxxiCQoj - 2004N~AL2B Specifications of the transistor and the latest compatible version of the table of each fiscal year (CQ's publisher) - Since 2004, these two books together.

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