ビデオジャパンは、最大でランク。

# p English

p/COh English / English language
English English
Pronunciation IPA : /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ IPA: / ɪŋɡlɪʃ /
b Will be spoken in the country United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and the Republic of South Africa, New Zealand, Singapore and many
n Regional Principally in Western Europe, North America, Australia
b The total number of speaker F38000lF6lOF10l[1] As a mother tongue: About 380 million people as a Second Language: About 600 million people as a foreign language: more than one billion people [1]
24 ibj 2 to 4 (as a native speaker)
1 iAAObvj 1 (first language, second language, foreign language speakers of the total)

p/COh English / English language
In Public position
p Official language
@ Control Authority No
R[h Language code
ISO 639 -1 ISO 639 -1 en en
ISO 639-2 ISO 639-2 eng eng
ISO 639-3 ISO 639-3
\ E b E E

p / COh i/COhA English jA ChE[bpQ}hACMXCOhn B English / English language (English / England, you, English), the Indo-European Germanic languages belong to the United Kingdom of England region of origin and language. EbB Is the world's most spoken language is one.

## [ W ] Tv Summary

### [ W ] upv{ "English" Japanese name

pupvAEnglish P|gK inglês upgviCMXCOhntljB English, "English" and, English words of Portuguese translation inglês translation of the Han Dynasty, "England" is an abbreviation of (United Kingdom of England will put words and thoughts). upgv Inglaterra B "England" Inglaterra more about the theory of translation of the Han Dynasty as well. upvuCOhvA {NwA tXhCc[bpIpB "English" is the word "English language" is an abbreviation of Japanese and Korean in the case point to this language, French, German and other European languages and different origin of the abbreviation is generally accepted .

### [ W ] Status

A CMXSpACMXEF[YXRbgh A kAChpObB Currently, the United Kingdom as a whole of the national language is English, the United Kingdom are included in Wales and Scotland and Northern Ireland in a language other than English speaker said. COhAR~jeBgB Also in England, and each of the immigrant community is the use of mother tongue.

20ICMXAnApbvi pQjB Middle of the 20th century to the United Kingdom many colonies that had the English speaker of the factors was an increase in the number (of the British Empire to see). CMXAnB Policies adopted by the British colonial indirect rule. A G[gwCMX{AAnB In other words, the elite in the United Kingdom's country of citizenship education subject to their respectiveRISHITA to the colonies. wKG[gwpAAnspxzIA B All of the upper class elite, educated in English for the English colonies in the dominant administrative and independence to continue even after this state. ACMXiCMXAMjpIi EoEjgACMXnB Thus, the former British colony (now that many of the British Commonwealth is a member) to the English public (political, economic, educational) to be used and the United Kingdom and the common language of these regions.

EACMXXeApAnynApgpAJOeApLpOELyB World War II, Britain's gradual influence in international politics will be weakened, the former British colony built on land that is to use the country as well as in English, Mr. USA have a strong influence To have, and as a result of useful English as a foreign language to be widespread in the world.

## [ W ] characters

peLqA26SpB English is usually the Latin character is described by the following: the use of all 26 characters.

[bpA _CANeBJ}[NpB Europe, unlike many other languages, Diacritic use the most. A At@xbgAMLOAiTCj_ubNB When the handwriting of the letter that lie cursive was the mainstream in the past, the signature (signing), except in terms of readability and block the mainstream.

pAHB Many in the English pronunciation of the characters have more than one, and the difference in spelling and pronunciation of the actual lot.

## [ W ] Pronunciation

Details of English Studies University # voice phonological see

pWA[bpRB English pronunciation and spelling of the relationship between the language compared with other European and consistency of the poor. p15InA p17IIAZpy{IXNB This is mainly in English in the early 15th century to the beginning of the modern English in the early 17th century to the early end of the Great Vowel Shift in spite of the phenomenon, the spread of printing technology in order to have been the basis of a fixed spelling Not being able to change due to the addition. Onamei[AtimeeB[ijAlC^CAneimtaimXApwKYsvNB That is the name NAME before and, time and spelled the street Thieme was pronounced (and even more pronounced as had beenRA), and NEIMU time to pronounce that despite the changes, neim, and taim Spelling did not have to be changed, the current English learners to be plagued by inconsistency of spelling and pronunciation is happening. KAOB The following shows the rules of pronunciation, but many exceptions. Ap[bpnPpAPpNB This is the English language from other European languages have borrowed words, when a large amount of words without changing the original spelling and not due to borrowing.

Vowel
• aF a:
• /æ/ B When you have a stress / æ /. Aq+e/eɪ/dB However, to be followed and if the consonant + e / eɪ / and diphthongization.
• F f a t /fæt/ , m a ke /meɪk/ Example: f a t / fæt /, m a ke / meɪk /
• BB If there is no stress vowel ambiguity.
• F ad a m a nt /ædəmənt/ Example: ad a m a nt / ædəmənt / i wvEt@C j Listen
• aiF /eɪ/ ai: / eɪ /
• F m ai l /meɪl/ Example: m ai l / meɪl / i wvEt@C j Listen
• alF /ɔː/A}XnPenal/əl/ al: / ɔ ː / The Romance of the system as al-word is the adjective / əl /
• Fall /ɔːl/ , talk /tɔːk/ , national /ˈnæʃnəl/ Example: all / ɔ ː l /, talk / tɔ ː k /, national / næʃnəl /
• arF /ɑː/ (p)A /ɑːr/ ar: / ɑ ː / (UK), / ɑ ː r / i wvEt@C j () Listen (U.S.)
• Fcar /kɑːr/ Example: car / kɑ ː r / i wvEt@C j , /kɑː/ Listen / kɑ ː /
• auF /ɔː/ au: / ɔ ː /

## [ W ] @ Grammar

pEpwKKu @ viKIjggB In this section of English education suitable for learners of "traditional grammar" (normative) shows the framework. LqIp@@pwQB This is completely different from English law and the description of generative grammar and English, see.

^_ApB Language typology look at it, the English have the following characteristics.

1. ChE[bpiAicB Indo-European is characteristic of a noun and the case has almost disappeared, and changes in personality pronoun is the only remaining. SVOB Because of this order is SVO is fixed.
2. ChE[bpA PB Indo-European languages in the verb change is simplified. sKrIB But irregular verbs are relatively few. KE -edA E -ingAOlP -(e)s B Rules verb form of changes in the past tense past participle of-ed, present participle gerundive-ing, the third person singular present tense - (e) s only. sKi pj A  A B Irregular verbs (Old English in the strong verb part of) the current, past, past participle in the stem to see changes.
3. G\B The complexity expression of time. LQB The following section tense.
4. A^e do pB Negatives, with no question of the use of auxiliary do. pB This is a feature not found in English only.
5. ABB Subject to the work of strong, and no formal subject to life sentences and the subject has been developed.
6. lPeaAyou gBPand a second person without distinction ofea, you use only.

### [ W ] pronoun

lA plQB For a personal pronoun, the English personal pronouns to refer to.

l^EW who i Personal interrogative pronouns relationship between changes in case of who
l^ (personal interrogative)EW (relative pronoun) who APWi who / Li whose / Ii whom (who)iil^ what/which Li whose jB Interrogative person (personal interrogative) relative pronoun (relative pronoun) who, regardless of singular nominative several who / possessive whose / objective whom (who) is the only case to change (interrogative impersonal what / which Only a change in whose possessive).

### [ W ] noun

Z Count noun several changes
iAAZ (countable noun) A\-sti: booksu{vjB Noun in the case, the disappearance of the change, but the count noun (countable noun), which represents more than one-s identity to the ending (for example: books "book"). I [s]AL [z] B Voiceless words pronounced in the end, if [s], it voiced [z] said. "s"A-es ti: gases uijCvjB Originally, the ending "s" is the word,-es and identity (for example: gases "(several species) gas"). A"f" /f/ I"-es"A /f/ L [v] i: leaves utvjB In addition, "f" / f / at the end of a word in the plural endings "-es" and the words, if / f /, and voiced [v] will be (for example: leaves "leaf") .
A pApi: mouse > mice ulY~vjB Back to the Old English period, nominal changes intensity of the changes associated with multiple thematic changes in the sound of modern English, but there has been material (for example: mouse> mice "rats"). AP^i: fish uvAJapanese u{lvjA i: ox > oxen uIXvjAwoman women sKAOB In addition,Puniform (for example: fish "fish", Japanese "Japanese"), less than substantive changes still keep the changes (for example: ox> oxen "castrated male cattle"), woman women and Irregular changes, and many exceptions.
L\ Nominal ownership of expression
L\AueICAP-'s A-' i A|XgtBjti: the servant's king ugplLOv/ the servants' king ugplLOvjB Is a noun or have no means, be placed immediately after the noun and adjective to the other if you qualify, if the ending of the singular - 's, if more than one -' (apostrophe only) Identity (for example: the servant's king "servant of the King" / the servants' king "a servant of the King"). pAL\i (genitive) pAipcB English during the period, representing ownership in the genitive (genitive) was used, but weak in the modern use of nouns ending in the genitive as a reminder that this is a generalized form.
A Ou ofpLW\i: the crown of the king uvjB The prepositional use of the property may represent the relationship (for example: the crown of the king "crown of the King").

F Many more examples:

• The judge's@decision@/ Decision of the judge : The judge's decision / Decision of the judge: the judge's decision
• The judgesfdecision@/ Decision of the judges : The judges'decision / Decision of the judges: Judge's decision
• Horus' battleship / Battleship of Horus : zX Horus' battleship / Battleship of Horus: Hollis of the battleship
h Noun derived
iB In other words part of speech and noun endings to add a lot of examples.
• + -er-or clisj : batter Verb +-er or-or ... the people (of conduct) Example: batter
• + -ing cisj : batting That verb +-ing ... (act) Example: batting
• + -ment ciIsj : settlement That verb +-ment ... (an abstract act) Example: settlement
• e + -ity cij : homosexuality +-Ity ... is the adjective (state) Example: homosexuality
• e + -ality cij : commonality +-Ality ... is the adjective (state) Example: commonality
• e + -ist cl : specialist Those who have the adjective +-ist ... Example: specialist
• + -ism cX : capitalism +-Ism ... a noun or a trend of examples: capitalism
• + -ist c : capitalist +-Ist ... principle of substantive examples: capitalist
ih@\IB Part of speech and meaning derived from the original method is the only representative said.
tAIpPB In other words, those words almost certainly ending nouns ending in.

### [ W ] verb

(ordinary verb) A@ (mood) A (number) Al (person) pAOlP" -(e)s "tB General verb (ordinary verb), Law (mood), the number (number), person (person) to take advantage of the near-disappearance, and in the third person singular present tense "- (e) s" is the only way . (tense) sKAAi: rise/rose/risen uvjAKA-edti: walk/walked/walked uvjB Tense (tense) by the irregular verb changes in the present tense, past tense and past participle by changing their shape (for example: rise / rose / risen "ascend"), changing the rules in the past tense verbs, past participle form Ending in-ed will only come to (for example: walk / walked / walked "walk"). A (gerund) E (present participle) S (bare form) -ingtB The gerund (gerund) present participle (present participle) in its original form in all the verb (bare form)tSURE to-ing to a good ending.

hCc (-en) tX (-er, -ir) As (inifinitive) B German (-en) and French (-er,-ir), unlike amorphous (inifinitive) to the seemingly telltale spelling and verb forms. P^Af@B Therefore the original form when given the word, how to determine whether a verb is. i]eB Because of this paradigm shift is altering the part of speech is easy. : smoke uvu^oRvAuovu^oRzvgB Example: smoke in the noun "smoke", "tobacco smoke," but as the verb "smoke", "tobacco smoke" and also can be used.

#### [ W ] @ Law

p@@ A @ A @ A @B English law is indicative, subjunctive, imperative, conditional law exists.

@ (indicative) Indicative (indicative)
AAAAOlPOpApB In general the past tense verbs, past participle form, the form present participle, gerund, other than the third person singular present tense used in the form of visible without the use of substantial original form.
@ (subjunctive) Subjunctive (subjunctive)
pOAEALA@p@B English during the period before the current tense in the past also appeared in one, each with a unique paradigm, but the assumption in modern usage and the law itself is a bit special. if p (conditional clause) Abe were @\i you OP was pjAOi: would, could, might, shouldjp\B and if using a conditional clause (conditional clause) in the past tense verbs in general, be a verb if you were to be represented by the law (now spoken of in the singular nominative case of that was other than you have Can be used), non-conditional past tense of the auxiliary verb (for example: would, could, might, should) be represented by the use of. @{\A\A@qYB Subjunctive verb changes in the original were lost in this way in order to express, but because it is represented as verb conjugation and tense, subjunctive tense by the shift in the predication cause.
• : If I were a bird, I could fly into the sky. uABv Example: If I were a bird, I could fly into the sky. "If a bird I would fly into the air is able."
u@vAqE B The "past" and the predicate is the current status of the operation.
@EqA\pB Suppose the state of past actions by law to give an account, use the following structure.
• : If I had been a bird, I could have flown into the sky. uABv Example: If I had been a bird, I could have flown into the sky. "If I were a bird, flying into the air but IKETA."
u have  had + vA (main clause) u + have + vB In terms of Section "of modal verbs have had + past participle past tense," and added, major section (main clause) in the "auxiliary auxiliary past tense + have + past participle." u@vB The "completion past," he said.
Abv\ (intentional verb) A] (subordinate clause) lEAu@vB The main clause of the verb to represent the will of the speaker verb (intentional verb) if the subordinate clause (subordinate clause) in its original form, regardless of verb tense that person may be, this "present subjunctive "He said. qB Predication have been tense of the verb tense in the main clause said. AJpp@ACMXp]O should B This is American English usage is often found in the United Kingdom in the English verb in the subordinate clause and should be in front of.
• : He insisted that she be innocent.uABviAJpj Example: He insisted that she be innocent. "He said she is innocent." (American English)
• : He insisted that she should be innocent.uABviCMXpj Example: He insisted that she should be innocent. "He said she is innocent." (British English)
Ainsist recommend, suggest B In such a verb, insist also recommend, suggest, among others.
@ if gA|uB If the subjunctive in nodes without conditions, the auxiliary is often inverted.
@ (imperative) Imperative (imperative)
 (sentence) u\B In its original form of a verb sentence (sentence) is represented by the first place. @OuB Outside the imperative to note that the verb root is placed almost none.
• : Be quiet. uBv Go to school. uwZsBv Open the window. uJBv Example: Be quiet. "Calm yourself." Go to school. "Go to school." Open the window. "Open the window."

#### [ W ] tense

p{IA (nonpast) (past) B The basic English tenses, the non-past (nonpast) and the past (past) two. Q}nB The Germanic language system is a common characteristic. sKAK-edt\B In the past tense of the verb stem irregular changes in the rules-ed verb endings in the expression of thetSHI. {ApA\@will, shallp\A be going top\pB Originally, there is no future tense in English, so it represents the future of the auxiliary when the law will, shall use or expression, be going to use that phrase to the other. \is\B The immediate plan is currently in progress to express that.

pA@AAB Tense in English, law, the minister, leads to the following state.

Tense @ Law Minister State Verb
Completive is Progressive aspect
-Ø ij -Ø (non-past)
-ed ij -ed (past)
Ø ij Ø (normal).
will ij will (future)
Ø ij Ø (normal).
have -en ij have-en (complete)
Ø ij Ø (normal).
be -ing iisj be-ing (progressive)
Ø i\j Ø (active)
be -en ij be-en (passive)
do

A@ (will) AAise2AI\16B Tense, the law (will), complete, progressive, so each of two real-time representation as a 16. sgB Infinitive and the state minister only. {Awill \B Other tense of the original, will also tense due to a future that expression. A (-Ø) A (-ed) A (will) A (would) B In this case, the current (-Ø), past (-ed), the future (will), past the future (would) be called.

#### [ W ] Minister

p (aspect) A (perfect -) is (progressive -) B English-phase (aspect), the complete phase (perfect -) and the progressive phase (progressive -) exists.

Completive
u have + v\B "Have + past participle form of auxiliary verb" will be represented by. have  had A\\B Have had a past auxiliary to the completion of the tense phase can be expressed.
• : She has gone to India.uChsBv Present perfect example: She has gone to India. "She had gone to India."
• : He said that she had gone to India.uAChsBv Past perfect example: He said that she had gone to India. "He went to India, she said it."
pAb@A\B By using the past perfect, indirect discourse during the tense differences can be expressed. u vB This "great past," also called.
AqAOsyeB Past and present perfect tense is the difference between the latter in the past only to give an account of the fact that, while the latter acts of the past affect the present is included. op\gB Therefore, the present perfect to describe the experience and be used continuously.
• : She has gone to India.uChsijBv Present perfect example: She has gone to India. "She had to go to India (not the back)."
• : She went to India.uChsiAjBv Past examples: She went to India. "She went to India (I might be back, and may not return)."
• : She has lived in India.uChZovuChijZBv Present perfect example: She has lived in India. "She has lived in India" or "She is in India (until now) has continued to live."
• : She lived in India.ui_jChZiZqjBv Past examples: She lived in India. "She (at some point in the past) had lived in India (where they live now or do not have the predicate)."
Au"be"+v\B The oldest, complete phase of the intransitive verb "auxiliary" be "+ the past participle form of verb" was represented by. pIB But a handful of current conventional intransitive take this form. uvAppoB "Minority", but is frequently by the trivial.
• He is gone. usBv Examples He is gone. "He was gone."
• The sun is set. uBv Example The sun is set. "Sunk in the day."
• I'm done with it. uBv Example I'm done with it. "I we did it."
is Progressive aspect
u"be"+v\B "Auxiliary" be "+ present participle verb form" will be represented by. A\pi"know""have"\IisjB However, the only active verb can not be used (for example, "know" and "have" to represent the state in general is not going to phase). Abe"was", "were"Ais\\B In addition, the auxiliary be past tense "was", "were" to the progress of the past tense phase can be expressed.
• is: She is playing tennis.uejXBv An example of ongoing: She is playing tennis. "She is playing tennis."
• is: She was playing tennis.uejXBv Past examples of progress: She was playing tennis. "She had been playing tennis."

#### [ W ] state

p\ (active voice) (passive - ) A\\Es\B English voice is active (active voice) and passive (passive -), represented by the verb is active in the state to do work that represents the subject. Auv\B The passive, subject to any operation "is" to represent that. ube+v\A^ by Ou (prepositional phrase) \B Passive, "auxiliary be + past participle" is represented in the work of the Lord is true if guided by a prepositional phrase (prepositional phrase) will be represented by. A (transitive verb) A\I (intransitive - ) iF"stand"uvjB However, the transitive verb (transitive verb) is limited, keep active object in the intransitive verb (intransitive -) (Example: "stand" "stand") can not be passive. Abe"was", "were"A\\B In addition, the auxiliary be past tense "was", "were" due to the passive tense can be expressed.

• \: He builds a kennel.uBv An example of active voice: He builds a kennel. "Him build a dog house."
• : A kennel is built (by him). uijBv An example of passive: A kennel is built (by him). "Dog house (by him) will be built."

A@EEgGE\_\B The combination of these tense and complicated phase of the representation of time to work on it will be logical.

• : He would say that the building had been being built.uABv Example: He would say that the building had been being built. "He would say, the building was under construction."
iwould@Ahad beenAbeen beingisAbeing builtj (Would the subjunctive, had been completed form in the past, been being a progressive form, being built by the passive voice)

#### [ W ] bep be the use of verbs

be beB be the original form of the verb be. @lWwerei you OPwasgjB In the past, and were not related to a person (other than you in the singular nominative case that was also used.) been AAbeingB The past participle form of been, present participle, gerund, is being.

@ Indicatively l Assorted l Second person Ol Third person
P Singular More P Singular More
Present form am are are is are
 Past tense was were were was were

### [ W ] auxiliary

(auxiliary verb) @ A @I@\SAS{pB Auxiliary (auxiliary verb) the law, ministers and carry grammatical features, along with the meaning of responsible use of the verb.

su Infinitive if the post -
sutosuB Immediately after the auxiliary to the bare infinitive is put to infinitive is based. A\EE\Abv\@ (modal auxiliary) AgppxB In particular, the obligation can be expected, and represents the will of the speaker modal (modal auxiliary) is called, often used in the auxiliary high.
• @: can, will, shall, may, must, need Examples of modal: can, will, shall, may, must, need
pEpAgp]i: can < cunnan uvjB Old English to Middle English period, the general has been used as a verb that has turned some auxiliary (for example: can <cunnan "~"). must @A{\B Excluding must have a modal form in the past, instead of the verb conjugation and representing the past tense.
• : Once I could swim very well.uAjBv Example: Once I could swim very well. "I oncejGETA well."
pAAwill, shall, be going to p\B Originally in English, but there is no future tense, will, shall, be going to expressible by the use of the future.
u Participle when the post -
u have, be AeXEEisB Auxiliary verb participle in the post to have, be, and each is associated with the past participle present participle form a complete phase-phase progression. Ahave, be lEElB In this case, have, be the subject of the number of person-hours to respond to the same general form of the verb changes.
^ Question and statement denying the formation of
If there are no auxiliary sentence
mA^EA do pB The lack of auxiliary positive statements, statements in question in the negative, the use of auxiliary do. do lEEB If the number of person do when the subject system in response to the changing paradigm. A^Au do - - {vB The order of the question if the "auxiliary do - subject - the verb".
• : Do you swim? ujHv Example: Do you swim? "jGIMASU you?"
• : Does he swim? ujHv Example: Does he swim? "HejGIMASU?"
• : Did you swim? ujHv Example: Did you swim? "jGIMASHITA you?"
be ACMXpL\ have do g|u^B The verb be, the old-fashioned represent ownership in British English have do without the inversion will be subject to question and create.
• : Are you a swimmer? ujHv Example: Are you a swimmer? "Are you a swimmer?"
• : Have you a pen? uyHviCMXpj Example: Have you a pen? "Has a pen?" (Old-fashioned British English only)
u - do - not - {vB Sentence order denying the "subject - auxiliary do - adverb not - the verb". do not k don't B Contraction and notSHI do typically have a don't said. ^lAbe CMXp have Ado pB Like the question, be in English and have the old-fashioned, do the use.
• : I do not swim. ujBv Example: I do not swim. "jGIMASEN me."
• : He does not swim. ujBv Example: He does not swim. "jGIMASEN his."
• : You did not swim. ujBv Example: You did not swim. "jGIMASEN you."
• : I am not a swimmer. ujBv Example: I am not a swimmer. "I'm not a swimmer."
• : I have not any money. uBviCMXpj Example: I have not any money. "I do not have any money." (Old-fashioned British English only)
If you have auxiliary sentence
mA^AOuAu - - {vB Auxiliary is a positive statement, to question, the auxiliary place on the eve of the subject, order the "auxiliary verb - subject - the verb".
• : Can you swim? ujHv Example: Can you swim? "jGEMASU you?"
• : Are you swimming? ujHv Example: Are you swimming? "You have to swim?"
A not uB In addition, immediately after the auxiliary adverb can not deny a place to form a sentence. am may An't kB Except for, and may am, n't, including a reduction in shape.
• : I will not swim. ujBv Example: I will not swim. "jGIMASEN me."
• : I am not swimming. ujBv Example: I am not swimming. "I do not swim."
^ Doubts about the formation of negation
^AOB In addition to statements denying the question of the auxiliary to move in front of the subject. An't k1B At this time, n't abridged form, including with regard to the single.
• : Don't you swim? ujHv Example: Don't you swim? "You can swim?"
• : Aren't you a swimmer? ujHv Example: Aren't you a swimmer? "You are not a swimmer?"
d\kgAAnot uB Reduced representation in the form of hard-free, but this time, not remain in its original position. am may kAKB and the reduction may am not in shape, so be sure this format.
• : Do you not swim? ujHv Example: Do you not swim? "You can swim?"
• : Are you not a swimmer? ujHv Example: Are you not a swimmer? "You are not a swimmer?"
The formation of negative statements
don't (= do not) uB Regardless of the type of verbal don't (= do not) put in a sentence. never pB The use of the adverb is never.
• : Don't swim. ujv Example: Don't swim. "Swim"
• : Don't be surprised. uv Example: Don't be surprised. "Surprising"
t^ The formation of additional question
2 ^tAt^B To be synonymous with two auxiliary language from the statement at the end of the additional questions, and added to form a question. t^AAB In addition the question, the same verb tense in the text, taking phase. Asmt^Ast^mB In addition, the preceding sentence in the case of a positive statement denying statements additional question, and denied the preceding sentence statement in the case of a positive statement and added that question. AsmEWt]B In other words, positive and negative statements prior to the relationship is reversed.
• : He will study English, won't he? upHv Example: He will study English, won't he? "He will study English?"
• : He is studying English, isn't he? upHv Example: He is studying English, isn't he? "He is studying English?"
• : He won't study English, will he? upHv Example: He won't study English, will he? "He does not study English?"
• : He isn't studying English, is he? upHv Example: He isn't studying English, is he? "He does not study English?"
Highlighting a verb
do {OuB The auxiliary verb to do is put it in front of the verb said.
• : I do swim. uijj{jv Example: I do swim. "(I never swim) reallyjGIMASU"
p@ be gAgB The use of the declarative sentence can not use the verb be, but can be used in the statement.
• : Do be prepared. uBv Example: Do be prepared. "Please prepare well."
^\ In answer to question a former representative of the verb
p@ do uvB Do in this particular usage, "pro-verb" to be called.
• : Do you swim? Yes, I do. ujHv uAjBv Example: Do you swim? Yes, I do. "You can swim?" "Yes,jGIMASU."
• : Can't you swim? Yes, I can. ujHv ujBv Example: Can't you swim? Yes, I can. "You can not swim?" "jGEMASU."
{A^mIIAm yesA no i{uvuvljB Unlike the Japanese, the question is whether positive or negative, regardless of sentence if the affirmative answer yes, if no negative answer with statements (of Japanese respondents in the case of "Yes" "No" The idea of right and wrong is a question to answer.)
d Double negative
pdi_jmA{bbgB In a formal English double negative (as the logic) have a positive meaning, untrained in the speaker's conversation in the negative can be used to emphasize. dpDB In general, use a double negative that is objectionable.
• FI dunno nothin'. uAB(dunno = don't know)v Example: I dunno nothin '. "YAA and jeepers, SHIRANEE anything. (Dunno = don't know)"
I don't know anything. I know nothing. pB I don't know anything. Or I know nothing. Correct English.

### [ W ] i The other part of speech

e (adjective) ApCEEiAB Adjective (adjective), from Old English period-rated qualified by a number of substantive changes had been lost by now. A r (comparative class) " -er " (superlative - ) " -est " B As a paradigm, the comparative (comparative class) of the "-er" and the superlative (superlative -) of "-est" to affix. 3 AOmore/the mostuB Three syllables or more without changing a word in class, just before the adverb more / the most place. ei:many/much>more>most, little>less>leastjB To stem some of the adjectives that have changed (for example: many / much> more> most, little> less> least).
(adverb) Ap "-lice" Ae "-ly" tB Originally the independent adverb (adverb) has been present in addition to old-age English suffix "-lice" by the flow of the adjectives in "-ly" gave a lot of things.
(article) ieB Article (article) on the part of speech that is classified as an adjective.
(definite article) " the "s (indefinite - ) " a / an "B Article in the definite article (definite article) "the" and the indefinite article (indefinite -) "a / an" exists. iB It lost all of the changes are rated.
Ou (preposition) ApBB Preposition (preposition), especially in the English language has developed. RApi (nominative) iA ^i (dative) A i (accusative) iAIW\B As the reason for the period ending noun in the English subjective (nominative) In addition to the genitive, dative (dative), accusative (accusative) has a change of the case, the paradigm of language and other semantic relationships Represents. piAOuB However, in modern English, have been the result of the loss of case, in order to compensate for the preposition, it played a role.
(conjunction) A (coordinate - ) ] (subordinate - ) B Conjunction (conjunction), the coordinator (coordinate -) and subordinator (subordinate -) said. #pAQB # Conjunction conjunction English-savvy, so I want to see.
(interjection) AOh, YeahB Interjection (interjection) that, Oh, Yeah, that's word.

iS8Ae@\B The category with a total of eight in the content and function of language is divided into words. AAeAAAOuAAA AAeAeAAOuAA@\B Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, the interjection of the nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and the word content, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, the interjection of the language features.

### [ W ] {^ basic sentence patterns

pA[bpilAiWiNNjAIu^vB English, and many other European languages have noun and verb changes in the case of a person lost most of the changes to the text of the case (who or what to do) is dependent on word order, so And the fixed order "sentence pattern" is clear.

{pA CETEIjIY (CT Onions) 5^lp{^LgB Japan's English education in, C T Onions (CT Onions) proponent of the idea of a five-sentence pattern as the basic sentence patterns of English is widely used. iA5^A5^pwKWAB (In fact, five well-sentence patterns can not be explained in the statement and there, and sentence patterns are too stressed to get in the way of learningpTTE, not uncommon for the claim.

5^ApSqAOuB 5 sentence patterns, the English portion of the predicate nominative form in the heart, without a word preposition apples are the only things built in a statement, which is classified. gAAqbeApqAeAIAIeIqeB It is used in the language, as a noun subject, and say there be a predicate verb, as a predicate for action say a verb in general, and state the nature of the subject say adjective, general object of a verb-noun in the Predicate for the content of the object to its original form of a verb or adjective and noun. 5^AAOueIqPA5B 5 sentence patterns in this way, the subject and verb, noun and the preposition along without substantive content to line up a simple shaped as a predicate that happens in a limited area, categorized by the type of word and stood 5 And one is in the shape of things together. {ql@B This is the basis of statements contained in the subject and a predicate to the discussion of the meaning is not made. AtgpwKWB To that end, based on the words meaning is trying to use the study to those who have been prevented had the opposite effect.

AL^vdvB So far, the following sentence patterns is a major and is treated as important. p\@5^{OIA@Au{5^vx[X^EIAW[jAXpaTAOxford Advanced Leaner's DictionaryIpB The structure of English as a taxonomy of the sentence patterns in countries other than Japan is not very common, the verb to describe the wording on the "five basic sentence patterns" and was based on the verb form of the classification accepted in the world That is, the Genius English-Japanese dictionary, Oxford Advanced Leaner's Dictionary of the most prestigious and actively recruit in the dictionary is.

Ais2^AOP^lB Typically, the progressive form of a statementNASAZU the second sentence patterns, such as verbal portion of the current single-subject to a sentence patterns tailored to the shape of the future. lB It is also perfect form. 5^B The passive voice sentence does not apply to a five-sentence pattern. QQS1lB Verb of a group verb sentences, including one whole tend to think of the verb. AQA{ZAB In addition, a group verb, and the auxiliary verb is a fusion, so as a special form of auxiliary can handle. 5 ^qB 5 sentence patterns for the removal of all auxiliary parts of the subject and predicate only in the language of the order of the classified material.

htEN@[N (Randolph Quirk) t A (adverbial) lB KUAKU Randolph (Randolph Quirk) added the words A (adverbial) proposed the concept has been made. t A C M B A word is added, unlike M and modifier can not be omitted. l] 5 ^ SVA SVOA ^B This idea in the past five sentence patterns SVA SVOA and adds a sentence patterns. 2 ^ V be li S be CjB The V of the second sentence patterns of the verb be considered if you have a special treat (or S be C). AESEz[r[ (AS Hornby) 3 ^A 4 ^A 5 ^ O C s that ^B The A S Hornby (AS Hornby) in the third sentence patterns, and sentence patterns in the fourth, fifth and sentence patterns in the C O participle and infinitive and gerund in the case of clause and that the sentence patterns in detail the proposed classification is .

1^ S + V The first sentence patterns S + V
C M A S q V ^B This qualifier with the exception of M when the subject S and the predicate verb V is the only complete text of the sentence patterns. VSB When the V completely intransitive.
1^p be, come, go B The first verb sentence patterns to be used to be, come, go, and others.
2^ S + V + C The second sentence patterns S + V + C
CMASqV C^B Excluding that modifier when M, S and subject to subject and predicate verb to explain V complement is built in C and sentence patterns in writing. VsSB When the V and incomplete intransitive verb. SCWB C S complement the subject of a relationship is established.
2^FHe is a teacher. iBjA{IjAupBvA "He is an English teacher." pB The second example of a sentence in the sentence pattern: He is a teacher. (He is a teacher.), Which is the most fundamental part of the core is, if example of this "He is a teacher of English." If you want to If, "He is an English teacher."pGISE to do so.
• He is kind. He is busy. ieBZBj He is kind. He is busy. (He is friendly. Busiest He.)
• He looks busy. This tastes good. iZBj He looks busy. This tastes good. (He looks busy. It tastes delicious.)
2^pB The second verb sentence patterns used are the following.
• \ be, remain B Represent the maintenance of status be, remain.
• \ become, get, come, go B Represents a change of state become, get, come, go.
• o\ seem, feel, look, hear, smell, taste B Sense seem, feel, look, hear, smell, taste.
3^ S + V + O The third sentence patterns S + V + O
CMASqVI O^B Excluding that modifier M when the subject and a predicate verb V and S operation will be the subject of an object that consists of O sentence patterns in writing. VSB When the V completely transitive verb.
3^L I love you. iBjB The most famous sentence patterns in the third sentence in a straightforward I love you. (I love you.) Are.
4^ S + V + IO + DO The fourth sentence patterns S + V + IO + DO
CMASqVlI IOlI DO^B Excluding that modifier M when the subject and a predicate verb V S to get work and indirect object and the IO operation to get things moving for the direct object is built DO sentence patterns in writing. V^B When the V awarded a verb.
IIOIDOuAOuS + V + DO + Ou + IOB Direct and indirect object IO DO object to replace the position of the preposition to join the S + V + DO + preposition in the form of + IO. OutoforitojB That's for prepositions, or in most cases to be (to many more cases).
4^pB The fourth sentence patterns to be used in the verb is the following.
• to give, hand, pass, offer, allow; sell, lend, owe; show, teach, tell, promise, read B adds to give, hand, pass, offer, allow; sell, lend, owe; show, teach, tell, promise, read.
• for buy, make, get, do, find, cook, play, choose B join for a buy, make, get, do, find, cook, play, choose.
5 ^ S + V + O + C The fifth sentence patterns S + V + O + C
C M A S q V IOI C ^B Excluding that modifier M when the subject and a predicate verb V and S that will work for the purpose of language and words to describe O complement is built in C and sentence patterns in writing. V sSB When the V and incomplete transitive verb.
5 ^A I think him a suspect. ie^lABjB In the fifth sentence patterns as examples, I think him a suspect. (I think he is a suspect, is considered.). I O C WB If the object of C O complement is established. 5 ^AWCFXyZlplNTXB In the fifth sentence patterns, the relationship Jespersen felt that the term nexus is a kind of. lNTXEqWA{Eq 5 ^IEqB The relationship between subject and predicate nexus offer, in addition to the original subject-predicate-object in the fifth and sentence patterns that complement the meaning of the predicate is included on the subject.

AOC ASqOqAiIi O AqAbe c C B In other words, OC and the predicate of a sentence other than the central subject on what is the predicate nominative say, when the subject of a non-subjective and objective O, and a predicate, or verb root, be to omit the verb C and the remaining material is not.

5 ^{^A OC I S + C lA{^IlB The fifth and sentence patterns that are the basic sentence patterns, the original text internally in the OC of the S + C can be considered, including statements, as a basic sentence patterns that cover more practical thought.
5 ^pB The fifth verb sentence patterns used are the following.
• mo feel, see, hear, watch, observe, notice, smell, perceive, taste B Perception of the verb feel, see, hear, watch, observe, notice, smell, perceive, taste.
• g make, have, let; get, allow, permit, cause, force, compel, oblige B Causative verb make, have, let; get, allow, permit, cause, force, compel, oblige.

## [ W ] j History

1I[}lueA PgnZxzA PgeDB From the first century Rome that Britain Island, be stationed in the Celtic system and controlling the residents of the time, Celtic and Latin had the upper hand. [}l 410N{A 5I 6IA Q}nlXi W[gl A AOl A TN\l juenAZPglxzB The people of Rome in 410 years to raise the home country and the 5th century through the mid-6th century, the Germanic people of series (jute, Angles, Saxons) on the island of BURITEN imported from the continent and dominate the indigenous people of the Celtic To. COhQ}nB This was in England, the language of Germanic root system. pjnB From here begins the history of English. iQ}nBj (As a Germanic language system.)

pj 3B After the history of English is generally divided into three terms.

1. p i450]1100j Old English (450-1100)
2. p i1100]1500j English (1100-1500)
3. p i1500 ~j Modern English (since 1500)

B .

Q}nPAenPAA m}ERNGXg~AMKm}beB More germane to the series of words, the incorporation of the Latin word, and that is the Norman Conquest, the aristocracy Norman language is the influence he had. iI 11I~ApBj (In the period since the 11th century, English.)

## [ W ] p English-speaking

pQ Details of the English-speaking countries see

EpnB English-speaking regions of the world. ZFppi de facto jpnB Dark blue English the official language or de facto (de facto) is the local official language. FppvnB Pale blue is the official language but English is not the main regional languages.
pbl 2/3AJO English speaker population by country of 2 / 3 of the United States is a nation

## [ W ] pl population

pl38lxAl1k i9ljB The first English language and the number of people who are over 80 million people, about 300 million in the first language of the population of northern Chinese (about 900 million people) and very low compared. enlpApvapllAEgplB However, the Chinese mainly in China and around the Chinese society is the only currency that can communicate in English or English understandable given the situation of population change, the world's undisputed Boasts the largest population of the language is used. pepgAmAwZpBvAp\RC^[lbgypvO~O}[NAbvvA (English as a Second Language; ESL) pl6lB And the influence of English and American English as the international lingua franca was to be used, was established as a commercial language, science and technology transfer was the main language, and computer and Internet penetration in the original English Was created in the programming language and a markup language that has heightened demand, a second language (English as a Second Language; ESL) population is used as an estimated 600 million people. O (English as a Foreign Language; EFL) pwKEgplB Foreign language (English as a Foreign Language; EFL) learning to use English as many people. AEeCMXEAJpgguVpvoB Therefore, countries around the world, such as in the United Kingdom dialect of American English dialects beyond the framework of the "New English" to emerge.

### [ W ] CMXp English situation in the United Kingdom

CMXpQ Details of the English refer to

CMXAu eF iReceived Pronunciation/RPA BBC EnglishAQueen's EnglishlXjvIWpWpAu p (Estuary English)vVWoB United Kingdom, the "Received Pronunciation (Received Pronunciation / RP, BBC English, Queen's English and have a different designation)" the traditional standards using the standard English pronunciation, but in recent years, "estuary English (Estuary English) "a new standard has emerged as.

pOZPgi EF[YEQ[jbB In addition to English is indigenous Celtic languages (Welsh Gaelic) is spoken. COhoPgbAEF[YB England's policy of assimilation by the Celtic languages of the speakers has dwindled, the current revival of the Welsh and other measures are taken.

### [ W ] AJp English situation in the United States

AJpQ For details, American English reference

AJOCMXlAp@IB United States and United Kingdom as well as the state's official language does not exist on the legal texts. BxppBpXyCpIBB But at the state level to the English language and in English and in Spanish-language set forth in the express terms of the state. [bpniQ}n jApDmAEnAAWAE i qXpjbNQjApnhpbi AOETN\nji CObVEI[^ jB When the initial West European (especially German system) of immigrants many of the status of English is dominant, but increasingly Eastern Europe, Southern Europe an increasing number of series, the Asia-Latin America (Hispanics can see the problem) from A flood of immigrants pouring into the status of English as a firm trend could speaker English (Anglo-Saxon system) are born between (English-only movement).

p i jpA u oCKmKv|oB In any case English is the national language (languages) are accepted as a fact that the education in the field of "bilingual education or Monolingual education" is often taken as a matter of intent.

### [ W ] Ji_p English situation in Canada

Ji_pAnnApAnOk[xtXAtXgPxbNBAJi_SpptXAAM{TCgiSpsB Canada was a former British colony's area of the former British colony that it NUBERUFURANSU, and now the French have been used in the province of Quebec have the English as the official language of Canada Both the French and has been enacted, the federal government and corporate sites, all of the products described in English and French are the two languages. AAJOuApAI[XgAChpAnAJi_pCMXpAJpAPCMXppB In addition, the USA is located next to it, is a former British territory, but India, Australia and other former British colonies, and the difference, compared to the British and Canadian English to American English than the English Close to the spelling of a word of English as a formula to be adopted. PxbNBtXpApp^p\lAPxbNBOtXgAJi_ptXeFB Quebec is the official language is French, not English-speaking and English is not the ability to operate more than a few people, mostly outside Quebec is not used in French and English Canada, French influence in Close to zero.

### [ W ] I[XgAp English situation in Australia

Details of the Australian English, see

I[XgAbpACMXpaB Currently Australia is spoken in English, British English is theaTTA. arIAAJpAI[XgAfpCMXpB A relatively strong accent, but about change in American EnglishSHIKUNAKU, Australia and other English-speaking films in the United Kingdom also know if you can understand English.

## [ W ] pi qualification test for English

pQ English test reference

## [ W ] {p English in Japan.

]AJgKvA{pjnB At the end of the Edo envoy from the United States may need to negotiate with Japan began in the history of English. WY{pb{Ai{jpA_B JONYSHITA Japan is the first book in English, (the Japanese word order is different) as easy to pick up the meaning of the English language, the Chinese classics such as the return point had been struck.

A{pKvsB Today, English in Japan is essential to daily life and is not. wZpxziipjutB Only the absorption of science and technology and other means to the system and the tools of the trade (trade in English) is positioned.

ZEwAewZKCEIPAp\dApaSsB College entrance exam high schools, selected by compulsory acquisition of various schools in the English reading comprehension is the ability to focus, with a focus on teaching English to Japanese translation is done. AJpA CMXpIvVP[XIAEpwKB American English orthodox, United Kingdom English option would generally be treated as a case, the learning of English in the world that belong to specific examples. A\{oAp{|B Also, the much-awaited publication of Japanese reading ability of activity, many Japanese to English translation of the book will be a little help from the everyday life.

ApubvAuv\Z\XA{FB Meanwhile, the English language to "talk" and "listen" special skills and the ability to hold the trend, but will be allowed to Japan. A{CMXAnXAwupi{jiu`jApOl 1% ZIvfA{pbAKvRB This is in Japan, was a British colony, unlike countries, instead of university lectures in English language (Japanese) can get in (the mother tongue can not take the classes in the country's more ), The English-speaking foreigners in the country of 1 percent of residents do not have multiple elements, to speak English in Japan, need to listen to the poor.

## [ W ] r Footnotes

 [ wv ] [Help]
1. ^ Economist.com (2001-12-20). " The triumph of English " (p). 2007N928 {B ^ Economist.com (2001-12-20). "The triumph of English" (English). Browse September 28, 2007. vAJEg Necessary account

## [ W ] ON External links

EBLubNXpAB Wikibooks English textbooks and related documents.
EBNVi[pJeSB UIKUSHONARI English are on the category.

ビデオジャパンは、最大でランク。